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论文代写价格:巴甫洛夫和工具性条件作用在物质成瘾的发展和维持中的作用

人们对物质的依赖在我们周围随处可见。成瘾行为可能包括滥用酒精、尼古丁和可卡因等物质。研究表明,成瘾行为是后天习得的。巴甫洛夫条件反射是指人们学习将两种刺激联系起来的过程,这种反应最初由一个刺激引起的反应也由其他刺激产生。这个概念是伊凡·巴甫洛夫提出的。在操作性条件作用中,行为是随之而来的后果的结果

论文代写价格:巴甫洛夫和工具性条件作用在物质成瘾的发展和维持中的作用

操作条件作用是基于行为及其后果的。根据操作性条件反射原理,物质成瘾只有在对人有益的情况下才会发生。大多数被滥用的物质提供愉快的体验(Strain, 2009)。积极的和消极的援军在决定这个人是否继续使用这种物质方面起着重要的作用。人们开始使用物质来逃避消极和不愉快的生活事件。最初的欣快感、增强幸福感的感觉、从压力中解脱出来以及身体上的疼痛都强化了物质的使用。对物质的最初反应被认为是有益的

论文代写价格:巴甫洛夫和工具性条件作用在物质成瘾的发展和维持中的作用

Substance addiction among people can be seen all around us. Addictive behaviour may involve abuse of substance such as alcohol, nicotine and cocaine etc. Research has shown that substance addiction is a learnt behaviour. Pavlovian conditioning is the process where the person learns to associate two stimulus in such a way that response which was originally elicited by one stimulus is also produced by other stimulus. This concept was given by Ivan Pavlov. In operant conditioning, behaviour is result of the consequences that follow it.

论文代写价格:巴甫洛夫和工具性条件作用在物质成瘾的发展和维持中的作用

Operant conditioning is based on behaviour and its consequences. According to operant conditioning principle, substance addiction occurs only if it is rewarding to the person. Most abused substances provide pleasurable experience (Strain, 2009). Positive and negative reinforcements play an important role in determining whether the person will continue the use of the substance. People begin use of substance as an escape from negative and unpleasant life events. Initial euphoria, feeling of enhance happiness, relief from stress and physical pain reinforce the use of substance. The initial response to substance is considered rewarding