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assignment代寫:幹旱的原因和影響

幹旱是該地區某些氣候條件造成的。降雨模式的變化和熱浪的增加是造成Walgett幹旱的主要原因。自2013年以來,該地區降雨量低於平均水平,平均氣溫比該地區正常氣溫升高了1.1℃(Montoya, 2013)。造成幹旱的另一個原因是較低的模型表層土壤水分,這是89%的地區,較低的模型下層土壤水分,這是52%的地區,記錄在2013年11月,並從那時起不斷增加(蒙托亞,2013)。除此之外,澳大利亞,特別是新南威爾士州幹旱的根本原因是厄爾尼諾效應(Chiew, 1998)。厄爾尼諾現象可以通過下圖來解釋。

因此,在正常年份,澳大利亞有降雨,而南美洲則有幹旱。與厄爾尼諾現象相反,情況發生了逆轉。

根據新南威爾士州的幹旱歷史,該地區的環境受到了很大的影響。水生態系統正受到降雨稀少和水資源缺乏的幹擾(Bond, Lake and Arthington, 2008;Erksin和Warner, 1988)。包括魚類、植物和水鳥在內的水生物種正在從該地區消失。許多陸生植物也因為幹旱、粗糙、缺乏濕度和土壤濕度不足而瀕臨滅絕(Steffen, 2015)。如果幹旱不停止,這個地區的動植物將面臨嚴重的危險。

新南威爾士州的經濟在很大程度上依賴於該地區種植的農作物。Walgett的作物包括谷物中的小麥、大麥、燕麥、高粱和小黑麥,油菜籽中的芥茉和紅花,豆類作物和棉花和纖維作物中的鷹嘴豆、羽豆、蠶豆和田豆(Gray, os – emer和Sheng, 2004)。為了實現作物產業的高利潤,有必要在降低單位面積生產成本的同時提高單位面積產量。然而,Walgett的幹旱正在農場造成相反的情況。由於灌溉用水必須通過非自然資源獲得,而生產效率仍然較低,生產成本正在增加。由於幹旱給該地區的經濟造成嚴重損失,Walgett的牲畜養殖也受到影響。此外,該地區旅遊業的減少正在增加經濟損失。

Drought is caused by certain climatic conditions in the region. Variations in the pattern of rainfall and increased heat wave are contributing majorly to the drought in Walgett. There is below average rainfall in the region since 2013, while average temperature has risen to 1.1C above the normal temperature of the region (Montoya, 2013). Another cause contributing in drought is lower modeled topsoil moisture, which was in 89% region, and lower modeled subsoil moisture which was in 52% region, recorded in November 2013 and is increasing since then (Montoya, 2013). In addition to this, the basic cause of droughts in Australia, specifically New South Wales is El Nino effect (Chiew, 1998). El Nino effect is explained through the following diagram.
Hence, in a normal year, there is rainfall in Australia while South America is having droughts. Contrary in El Nino effect, situation reverses.
In line with the history of droughts in New South Wales, the environment of the region is greatly affected as a consequence. Aquatic ecosystem is being disturbed with the scarcity of rainfall and unavailability of water (Bond, Lake and Arthington, 2008; Erksin and Warner, 1988). There are aquatic species including fishes, plants and water birds which are disappearing from the region. Many terrestrial plants are also dying out due to dryness, roughness, lack of humidity and lack moisture in soil (Steffen, 2015). There is a serious danger to animal and plant life in the area if the drought is not terminated.
Economy of New South Wales depends largely on the crops grown in the area. Walgett crops include wheat, barley, oat, grain sorghum and triticale in cereals, canola, mustard and safflower in oilseeds, and chickpeas, lupins, fababeans and fieldpeas among pulses and cotton and fibre crops (Gray, Oss-Emer and Sheng, 2004). In order to achieve high profitability out of crop industry, it is necessary to increase per unit area production while lowering the productivity cost per unit area. However, drought in Walgett is creating a vice versa situation in the farms. The productivity cost is increasing as water has to be acquired through unnatural resources for irrigation and still yielding lower productivity. Livestock breeding is also affected in Walgett due to this drought which poses severe loss to the economy of the region. Moreover, reduced tourism in the area is adding to the loss to economy.

assignment代寫 :幹旱的原因和影響

幹旱是一種無法完全制止的自然災害。因此,有必要在集體和個人的基礎上尋求應對這種情況的方法(Montoya, 2013)。在新南威爾士州,當局目前的政策重點是通過結合管理和對幹旱的認識,使農民自力更生。新南威爾士州政府一直在為農民提供抗旱援助,但可以預見的是,新南威爾士州幹旱的嚴重程度和頻率的增加將迫使政府不斷增加農民抗旱援助的預算。

另一方面,新南威爾士州的銀行需要通過發放貸款和抵押貸款來幫助農民和他們的家庭,以防他們在幹旱或幹旱後時期向他們尋求財政援助。只有銀行、有關部門和政府攜起手來,使農民有效地擺脫困境、擺脫經濟貧困、擺脫心理貧困、擺脫脫離社會的意識,促進農民逐步升級,實現國家經濟的發展和公民的公平。

Droughts are a form of natural disaster which cannot be completely stopped. Therefore, it is necessary to pursue ways to cope with the situation on collective and individual ground (Montoya, 2013). In New South Wales, the current policies by authorities focus on making farmers self-reliant by incorporating management and awareness towards droughts. The government of NSW has been providing in-drought assistance to the farmers but it can be foreseen that increasing severity and frequency of droughts in NSW will compel the government to continually increase the budget for in-drought assistance of farmers.
On the other hand, banks of NSW need to assist the farmers and their families by granting loans and mortgages in case they look towards them for financial assistance in drought or post drought period. It will only be possible if banks, authorities and government join hands to take farmers and effectives out of the difficulty, economic poverty, psychological poverty and sense of withdrawal from the society and promoting them for escalating them for better economy of the country and equity among citizens.