Assignment First

  本篇幫寫論文-人際關係文化講了當經理們在做道德決策或爲人們在工作場所使用制定標準時,他們更喜歡有非常清晰和明確的指導方針。通常,管理實踐包括一套在工作場所進行道德和法律決策時要遵守的規則,以及一套禁止的規定。對於不同的利益相關者來說,禁令是不道德的行爲。在跨文化的倫理環境中,很難實施這樣的規則。一些規則最好能幫助管理層瞭解員工的文化背景,但它不能保證完全理解所有的道德衝突。本篇幫寫論文文章由加拿大第一論文 Assignment First輔導網整理,供大家參考閱讀。

  According to Kluckholn & Strodtbeck (1961), identifying culuture and related assumptions of nature of ethics can be done using size vital questions. The first question is aimed at understanding the societeal assumption about essential goodness of people, are they generally good or bad or both? The second question aims at understanding how the society understands interpersonal relations. The individual capability to act in the context of his own or a group awarneess is the conceptual awareness created in the second question. The third question attempts to understand what personal space is in a society. The fourth question attempts to understand how society understands man and nature. This is a basis for environmental ethics. The fifth question aims at understanding how a certain culture considers the role of change in society and if the culture respects stability. The final question aims at understanding how the culture value their orientation with time. According to Kluckholn & Strodtbeck (1961), an understanding of these six questions will be helpful for individuals when facing sources of conflcits in ethical decision making. Management in becoming more aware of these forms of conflicts would be able to handle them better in the workplace.

  Managers would prefer to have very clear and defined guidelines when they are making ethical deciisons or are definicing standards for people to use in the workplace. Usually management practies would involve a set of rules to follow for ethical and legal decision making in the workplace and have a set of prohibitions. The prohibitions are unethical practices as understood for the different stakeholders involved. In cross cultural ethical intractions it would be difficult to impose such a rule. Some rules would at best help in the managerial understanding of his employee cultural background but it would not guarantee a complete understanding of all ethical conflcits (Schein, 1985; Kluckholn & Strodtbeck, 1961). For instance, consider the cross cultural ethical interactions with respect to gifting practices. Consider the gifting practices in China versus the United States. In most cultures, the practice of gift giving and gift reception is not considered a problem. The act of gift giving itself is not a prohibited practices in any culture. However, when gift giving is brought into the context of understanding for a business then the meaning would change. In a Chinese culture for instance, the practice of gift giving is associated with respect. In the case of China, such a gift giving behavior is considered to be tradition. A business gift another business as an indication of respect that they have towards the other business. This could be the basis for a business relationship that is valued by giver and receiver. The receiver would accept the business gift as a mark of respect shown and trust the motives of the sender. While this is a culture based business etiquette for China, in the context of other countries this not be busness etiquette. Here, the deicison maker who actually passes on the gift is considered as a bribe giver. The person in context gives a bribe and the person who receives it be considered as havin recived a bribe. Based on cultural contexts and more, westerna cultures consider some of these gift giving actions as being fair and some others as being unfair or unjust. As Kohls and Buller (1994) argue, what is considered to be conflicting values hence becomes a matter of culture. Now there is a continuum of conflict observed here, as there are different cultures and ethical instances that can be seen here. The same gift giving behavior appears differently in the context of presenting something to people working in a sweatshop. Here the action would be viewed as being a considerate and a compassionate act. The seriousness of how some things have to be viewed would have to be observed in context hence managers will need help in observing such actions based on context.