Assignment First



现代性理论家认为,国家的进步依赖于其多样性和适应性。以上观点可以认为是正确的。然而,战争、政治冲突、灾害和流行病也能使贫穷国家在发展道路上左右摇摆。津巴布韦发生的破坏性政治冲突以及苏丹和利比亚的冲突把这些国家拖离了发展的道路。由此可见,发展的道路并不容易(Matunhu, 2011)。现代化是一个人与文化通过外部改变的过程。在这种情况下,一个人的现代化必须提供动力,以适应不断变化的经济和社会条件。然而,它会导致把人的价值观留给殖民者的价值观。

The Rostowian linear development theory proposes different stages of development. With this theory, it is likely to view Africa on the development path but it is too imaginary. Most of the economies invest in production, manufacturing, agriculture and tourism in Africa. With this, it is not simple to categorize economies into efficient categories as recommended by the Rostowian linear development theory. The theory of linear development model is also proposed by Gabriel in the year 1991. He argued that the movement of modernity was related to the development production techniques such as automation, increasing the use of computers, using science and technology in manufacturing of economic services and goods.
According to Modernity theorists, countries advance by depending on their versatility and adaptability. The above view can be considered as true. However, the wars, political conflicts, disasters and epidemics can also lead the poor nations back or forth on the path of development. The destructive political conflict which took place in Zimbabwe and the conflict in Sudan and Libya have dragged these countries from the way towards development. Thus according to such examples, it can be concluded that the way towards development is not easy (Matunhu, 2011). Modernization is the process of change where a person and the culture are changed through external. In this situation, modernization of a person must provide motivation, to go with the changing economic and social condition. However, it leads to leaving the person’s values for the values of the colonizers.

毕业论文代写 :现代化理论


现代化理论的另一个致命缺陷是,它是建立在这样一个过程之上的:经济和社会发展的线性发展理论认为变化是由外部因素引发的。变更是从外部发起的。决定论的理由不能对变化的原因提供令人满意的看法,因为这些变化是在发展中区域内和从发展中区域外开始的。这种观点支持外国势力必须决定非洲的发展道路。1980年代,非洲不得不面对国际货币基金组织实施的经济结构调整方案(ESAP)的失败。ESAP项目失败的原因是完全忽略了接受国的社会、传统和文化价值观(Matunhu, 2011)。这个项目是“以欧洲为中心”的实验,但却彻底未能使非洲摆脱贫困。


The modernization theory is disapproved as it failed to consider the deprived and poor people as the main focus poverty reduction initiatives. Modernity will only achieve the marginal commitment and support for the intervention strategies, if it fails to involve the target community. The intervention or the involvement strategy becomes a forced strategy if it fails to apply the idea of constructing relation between social structure and development agencies. The major weakness of modernization theory is that it provides the oversimplified idea of the social change. Changes are opposed as they bring uncertainty.
Another crippling flaw of modernization theory is that it is based on a process which says that changes are externally initiated in the linear development theory of economic and social development. Changes are initiated externally. The determinist reason does not provide satisfactory view for the cause of changes, as they are initiated from within the developing region and from outside the developing region. This idea supported that foreign powers must decide the development path for Africa. Africa had to face the failure of IMF-imposed economic structural adjustment programme (ESAP) in 1980’s. The reason of failure of ESAP project was that it completely ignored the social, traditional and cultural values of the recipient nation (Matunhu, 2011). This project was ‘Eurocentric’ experiment which drastically failed to pull out Africa from poverty.
The theory proved unsuccessful to identify the ingenuity and initiative of the Africans. The modernization theory stresses on the domination of the metropolitan powers in the development of Africa. This becomes the reason of concern for the contemporary discourse on development of Africa.