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代写assignment:性别社会建构中的女性范畴

社会等级制度可能因经济发展而改变。张美凤(2015)在他的文章中总结了铁娘子现象,他认为从20世纪50年代到70年代,中国建立了一个独特的“铁娘子”世界,这个新术语可以看作是迈向性别平等的重要一步。“铁娘子”指的是具有男性特征的女性,比如身材强壮、头发短、皮肤黑,能够在农田里从事繁重的体力劳动。在这一时期,由于社会内部的现代化,铁娘子的职业由农田转向重工业。随着工业建设需求的增加,政府派遣妇女到西方国家学习铁路工程或采矿。政府用这个机器隐喻让女性感受到性别平等的概念,实现“男女平等”。“铁娘子”的概念改变了传统观念,即女性天生软弱,在社会贡献方面不如男性有用。在这场革命之后,消除性别歧视的扭曲理念受到了很多批评,人们意识到男女之间应该有一些差异,存在的不同角色并不意味着歧视。哈斯兰格在她的文章中写道,“女性经常被观察到或想象到某些身体特征,这些特征被认为是女性在生殖过程中所扮演的生物学角色的证据”(21)。由于女性是一个社会建构的术语,女性应该具有一定的自身特征,性别平等不能建立在消除女性特征的基础上。这个案例可以说明性别是社会建构的,因为技术等社会因素改变了女性的地位,从而提高了性别平等的地位。虽然在现代中国社会中,作为女性,具有一定的男性特权特征并不是促进性别平等的恰当方式,但中国女性走向更加平等仍然是一个重要的步骤。经济发展不仅表现在技术方面,也表现在工作场所。随着经济的发展,民营企业与国有企业分离的状况发生了变化。Stockman Norman(1994)通过考察生产与生育的相互关系,阐述了性别平等的历史变迁。晚清社会性别不平等的主要结构表现为女性有额外的家务劳动,人们遵循家庭制度,喜欢生活在父权社会。从那以后,社会开始把家庭和企业分开。所有公民都在工业中就业,雇主根据性别和年龄划分劳动力。雇主们似乎对性别差异这个话题不感兴趣,因为对他们来说,只有工业产品的质量才重要。但是,随着最新基础设施的发展,1990年出现了新的单位单位,政府鼓励妇女成为劳动力的一部分,从而促进了性别平等。一个成功的行业会希望所有的员工都能完全专注于商品的年度生产目标,所以对她们来说,被家庭琐事分心而无法专注于生意的女性是没有用的。在这段时间内,性别的可比性似乎降低了,因为男性和女性都受到了完全相同的对待。然而,这让人们怀疑,忽视自己社会地位的女性与男性完全平等的时代已经不远了。哈斯兰格在她的文章中定义“女性的这些特征标志着她们处于社会的主导意识形态之中,她们应该占据某种从属的社会地位(21)”。性别是社会建构的,它应该有女性的范畴,而不是简单地通过忽视男女差异来实现性别平等的目标。如果女性和男性在生理和心理上存在差异,但是政府强迫女性生产同样质量的商品,同时还要处理家庭事务,那么这就可以称为性别不平等。性别不平等的进程是复杂的,性别状况会受到经济因素的影响。虽然人们可以意识到20世纪女性地位的改善,但是中国政府和公民要想从社会的角度理解女性的真正含义,还有很长的路要走。


代写assignment :性别社会建构中的女性范畴

Social hierarchy could change by economic development. Meifeng Zhang (2015) summarizes the phenomenon of iron girl in his article, he thinks that from 1950s to 1970s, the unique world of the “iron girls” established in China and this new term can be seen as a significant step towards gender equality. Iron girls are women who have a masculine image such as a strong body shape, short hair, and dark skin and are able to do heavy physical work in farmland. During this period, the occupations of iron girl transformed from farmland to heavy industry because of the modernization within the societies. With the increasing demand of Industrial construction, government sent women to western countries to study railway engineering or mining. Government use this machine metaphor to make woman feel the concept of gender equality and realize “woman are equal to man’. This concept of an iron girl changes the stereotype that women are born weak and are not as useful as men in contributing to society. The distorted idea of removing gender discrimination received many criticism after this revolution, people realized that there should be some differences between man and woman and existing different roles does not mean discrimination. Haslanger in her article wrote that “woman is regularly and for most part observed or imagined to have certain bodily features presumed to be evidence of a female’s biological role in reproduction”(21). As female is a term of social construction, woman should have certain features of their own and gender equality cannot be based on eliminating female features. This case can demonstrate that gender is socially constructed because social factors such as technology changes woman’s position and consequently increase the stature of gender equality. Although it is not an appropriate way to promote gender equality in modern Chinese community as woman to have certain privileged masculine features, but it is still a significant step for Chinese woman to become more equal. Economic development can not only be shown in technological aspect but can also be shown in working place. With the development of economy, the situation of separation of the private household and public enterprise has changed. Stockman Norman (1994) illustrates the historical change of gender equality by investigating the interrelationships of production and reproduction. The main structure of gender inequalities in late imperial showed that woman had extra household jobs and people followed the system of family and liked to live in a patriarchal society. After that period, society began to separate household and enterprise. All citizens were employed in industries and employer divided the labour according to sex and age. Employers did not seem to be interested with the topic of gender differences, as to them only the quality of industry product mattered. However, with the development of latest infrastructures, the new term danwei (work-unit) appeared in 1990, and government encouraged woman to be a part of labour force, thus stimulating the gender equality. A successful industry would want all the employees to be fully attentive towards the goals of annual production of commodities, so for them woman who gets distracted by family matters and are unable to pay attention to the business are of no use. It seems that gender became less comparable during this time period because both man and woman were treated exactly the same. However, it makes people question that the time is not far when women who disregard their social position would become exactly equal to men. Haslanger in her article defines that “these features of woman marks them within the dominant ideology of society and they ought to occupy certain kinds of social position that are subordinate (21)”. Gender is socially constructed and it should have the category of what female is rather than simply achieving the goal of gender equality in terms of neglecting the differences between woman and man. If woman and man have physical and mental differences but government force women to produce the same qualities of commodities and take care of household issues at the same time, then it could be called as gender inequality. The progress of gender inequalities is complicated, and the situation of gender could get affected by economic factors. Although people can realize the improvement in female situation during 20th century, it is still a long way to go for both Chinese government and citizens to understand the actual meaning of female in social terms.