产品和生产系统被虚拟化，整个生产系统引入了数字化的附加维度(Wang, 2011)。当生产过程被分割成多个较小的单元时，内部协调的复杂性就绝对降低了。这些单位发挥独特的作用，因为它们消除了所有浪费的信息，只分享和讨论与进程有关的信息，事实上只讨论与该特定单位有关的信息。此外，当分散单元生产不同的产品或加工不同的原材料时，应用这些技术可以改变不同的单元。这减少了来自不同单位的浪费，因为分散的单位有最高的浪费产出。改变后的产品可以在不同的时间间隔生产不同的产品，在市场上有独特的销售主张。变更与较大的成本相关，制造变更对市场是一个很大的威胁，但是当流程随着柔性技术的投入变得灵活时，一次性成本的制造系统可以创建多个产品交付系统(Wilson, 2010)。
The trend in the market is on a continuous change and is affecting manufacturers of all kinds where they are forced to change the production process on a sporadic basis resulting in sudden rise of unexpected costs and misalignment of standardised quality maintenance. Complex environment, rapid production demands, and hyper competitive environment from equally innovative rivals are making the production companies adopt new procedures on a constant basis to reduce uncertainty in meeting market demands and reduce costs inputs of all types (Carreira, 2005). While preparing a plan for a customised or an intelligent product, they consist the knowledge of the production system necessary, and this product can lead independently to the end of the supply chain right up to the delivery. Thus, when preparing a new or customised product, the information that is transferred through the process of manufacturing can be extracted and virtualised to make it available to the entire supply chain to reduce human error and thus the elimination of production error. With such a real time information strategy for each node of the supply chain, it is possible that the production schedules will be ahead of time and delivery and make it leaner and agile. The time of information flow significantly reduces, and the real time access to the product flow is one thing which makes the next node in the supply chain always ready for receiving the product and preparing for the necessary treatment to the product. Current market trends is disrupting the requirement and sustenance of standardised products, and hence the concentration in a mart factory must be on the shop floor level for extracting and gathering product knowledge with the fastest pace (Ruffa, 2008). This will provide greater strength in delivery the demand of the market and make the process more intelligent as creative flow of energies is the demand on the factory. The manufacturing in customised products is difficult to be lean and agile. But with the parameters of Industry 4.0, it is possible to eliminate waste with excessive and right infusion of limited but supportive technology. This expedites the process of production and cuts the generation of waste or merely recognises a new by-product from the waste generated. Making the factories more innovative and result oriented is the key principle required and will be achieved with virtualization of product information and passing relevant information to all nodes of the supply chain enabling faster processing.
Products and production systems are virtualized and an added dimension of digitalization is introduced in the entire production system (Wang, 2011). The complexity of internal coordination is absolutely reduced when the production processes are segregated into multiple smaller units. These units play unique role because they eliminate all wasteful information and only shares and discuss information which is relevant to the process, in fact only those which is relevant to that particular unit. In addition, when decentralised units produce different products or process different raw materials, applying these technologies makes the alteration of different units possible. This reduces the wastage from different units as decentralised units have the highest wastage output. The units when altered can produce different products at different intervals and deliver a unique selling proposition in the market. Alteration is associated with large costs and manufacturing alteration is a big threat to the market, but when the process becomes flexible with the input of flexible technologies, the manufacturing system at a onetime cost can create multiple product delivery systems (Wilson, 2010).
Thus, Industry 4.0 is a unique concept which is ever applicable in manufacturing systems to make them lean and agile through becoming flexibly aligned with market needs, faster in delivery of products, and reducing wastage of resources and time.