研究表明，口腔卫生对一个人的生活质量有重要的影响(Emami et al, 2009)。良好的口腔卫生正向影响睡眠、食物享受、自尊和沟通(Birodi等，2015)。相反，口腔健康不佳会对一个人的整体健康造成许多风险因素，包括龋齿、牙周病、牙齿脱落和口腔黏膜病变。此外，它还与更严重的疾病有关，如口咽癌、精神分裂症和抑郁症(Zarco et al .， 2012)。许多因素可能会使一个人面临口腔健康状况下降的风险。这些包括年龄、酗酒、口腔护理依赖、营养不良、药物治疗、严重疾病、中风/吞咽困难和口干(Vandenbrouche et al .， 1994)。
饮酒:病人说他过去经常大量饮酒。结果，他出现了牙龈肿胀出血和溃疡。病人说他定期饮酒。在过去的10-15年里，他一直在做同样的事情。这是由于患者口腔卫生不良，包括嘴唇干燥和唾液缺乏，由于酒精的脱水性质(Moreno et al, 2000)。
在口腔健康评估后，该患者的护理计划中纳入了几项干预措施。由于牙龈健康状况不佳给患者带来了很大的疼痛，这是主要的干预措施。建议使用软毛牙刷。这不仅能改善牙龈健康，还能减少出血和疼痛(Krasse et al, 2005)。此外，建议使用小头牙刷接触患者口腔的多个区域，以帮助去除食物(Rowell, 2013)。建议每三个月更换一次牙刷，刷完牙后把牙刷放在牙刷专用的地方。教学干预也集中在正确的清洁技术，以更有效的清洁，如摆动和旋转牙刷。进一步的干预措施包括使用含氟无醇漱口水(Elias et al, 2015)和唾液替代品来改善口腔润滑(Gilam et al, 2016)。
Research has demonstrated that oral hygiene has a significant impact on one’s quality of life (Emami et al, 2009). Good oral hygiene positively affects sleep, food enjoyment, self-esteem and communication (Birodi et al, 2015). In contrast, poor oral health presents many risk factors for a person’s overall health, linking it with dental caries, periodontal disease, loss of teeth, and oral-mucosal lesions. Further, it has also been associated with more serious illnesses, such as oro-pharyngeal cancer, schizophrenia and depression (Zarco et al, 2012). Many factors may put one at risk for decreased oral health status. These include age, alcohol abuse, and dependence for oral care, malnutrition, medications, severe illness, stroke/dysphagia and Xerostomia (Vandenbrouche et al, 1994).
Risk factors for Oral Hygiene
The patient’s condition related to the Oral Health Assessment can be inter related to the risk factors mentioned below
Consumption of Alcohol: The patient voiced that he used to heavily consume alcohol on a regular basis. As a result, he developed swollen bleeding gums and ulcers. The patient told that he takes alcohol on a regular basis. He has been doing the same for the past 10-15 years. This was in-turn attributing to the patient’s poor oral hygiene, including dry lips and lack of saliva, due to the dehydrating nature of alcohol(Moreno et al, 2000).
Age: Another risk factor, which impacted this patient’s oral health, was his age, as individuals over the age of 50 are at higher risk for poor oral health (RNAO, 2008).
Implementation of Oral Hygiene to the patients condition
Several interventions were included into the care-plan of this patient following the oral health assessment. As poor gum health caused for this patient a lot of pain, this was a primary focus for interventions. It was recommended that a soft-bristle toothbrush be used. This would not only improve gum health, but also reduce bleeding and pain (Krasse et al, 2005). Furthermore, a small-headed toothbrush was recommended to reach a number of areas in the patient’s mouth to aid in the removal of food (Rowell, 2013). Recommendations were made to change the toothbrush once every three months, and to leave it in a toothbrush-dedicated spot after brushing. Teaching interventions also focused on proper cleaning techniques for a more effective clean, such as oscillating and rotating the toothbrush. Further interventions included the use a fluoridated alcohol-free oral rinse (Elias et al, 2015) and a saliva substitute to improve oral lubrication (Gilam et al, 2016).
In order to analyze the document, a number of findings have been obtained. The first and the most important analysis have been carried out on the documentation of RNAO for the purpose of nursing and oral hygiene. It is important to maintain a proper oral hygiene of the patients. Further the research related to the journals has been done. In addition to this, the patient health has been investigated in order to find the results about the health of the patients.