Reconciliation of work and childcare: Among the six countries (France, USA, Japan, Sweden, UK, Germany) the ratio of female population/employment in Japan is the smallest and the part timers share among female employees is high in Japan. Over the decades the situation of female employment has altered considerably in Japan. Although women are no longer needed to decline their jobs when they bear or marry children, several women in Japan decline working while increasing children, and undertakes part-time jobs when they re-enter the labor market. Still it is critical for women to predict similarly well-paying work after the childcare break when they re-enter the labor force. This is identified widely as the major reason for high opportunity cost experienced by women’s in Japan who has children contributed to low rates of birth in Japan.