Davoudi et al.(2012)也指出，规划对于灾害管理非常重要。社会的高度不确定性是由人为事件造成的，如恐怖袭击、青年骚乱、气候事件和侵占。最近发现，弹性对环境的影响更大。生态恢复力是指系统从冲击状态恢复的时间。人类机构必须确保更好的治理来处理和准备应付这种灾难。环境还需要更好的社会规划和社会生态相互依存的发展，使整个土地更加安全。
argued that natural disaster occurs because of environmental changes and lack of adaptation in the society. This could be due to the presence of stresses and environments turn to be highly vulnerable to even slightest changes in the natural phenomenon. Climate change is regarded as a natural change due to artificial happenings that tend to totally affect the environment. Vulnerability increases when the sustainability of livelihood decreases and people are unable to come out of poverty and build a better environment.
Davoudi et al. (2012) also stated that planning is highly important to manage disasters. The high nature of uncertainty in the society is because of manmade events such as terrorist attacks, youth riots, climate events and encroachments. Lately, resilience is found to influence the environment to a greater extent. Ecological resilience denotes the time taken by the system to return from the state of shock. Human institutions should necessarily ensure better governance to handle and be prepared to such disasters. The environment also demands better social planning and development of socio – ecological interdependencies to make the entire land safer.