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代写英文论文:日本汽车制造商的竞争优势

提高效率的另一个重要原因是产量低。日产(Nissan)和丰田(Toyota)等公司更注重质量。他们对所谓的小批量生产很感兴趣。二战后,丰田和日产发现了扩张的必要性,但也不得不以这样一种方式扩张,即生产高质量但体积较小的产品。应用OLI框架,即使在国际化过程中,企业仍然遵循他们的小批量生产。美国汽车制造商致力于大规模生产理念,而日本汽车制造商则专注于小批量生产理念。由于生产规模较小,日产和丰田能够生产更多种类的车型。竞争优势的一个重要方面是差异化。日本汽车制造商能够将成本降到最低,并将产品多样性最大化。日本公司的主要竞争对手专注于通过确保最低限度的多样化的汽车生产来实现规模经济的最大化。这与日产和丰田所关注的是直接矛盾的(Cusumano, 2013)。然而,这并不意味着这些公司从未使用过大规模生产技术。他们使用的方式不同。现有的大规模生产系统允许以更快的速度生产许多零件。美国制造商生产这些零件,然后储存起来,以满足必要时的市场需求。另一方面,日本制造商开始利用这些部件来满足市场的差异化需求。例如,在第二次世界大战之前的几年里,日本从美国带来昂贵的设备,以建立自己的一些工厂。购买这些设备意味着,与在其跨国工厂使用相比,日本将更广泛地使用这些设备。这是通过日产与Graham-Paige达成的一项直接协议实现的。一旦行动完成,日本军队对卡车和发动机的需求就会增加。日本利用上述工厂生产的零部件满足了这一需求。然而,二战后,对陆军市场的需求下降,因此,大多数日本制造商专注于制造公共汽车、卡车和轿车。为一个目标部门制造所用的同样设备不久就增加到包括一个更加多样化的部门。甚至多样化的产品,如乘用车,也被认为需要更多的变化,如乘客的选择。日产(Nissan)和丰田(Toyota)等公司为客户生产基本款汽车,然后继续即兴创作基本款汽车,使其具有更好的差异化。公司以低产量的形式使用的竞争策略实际上是有帮助的,因为公司可以测试出效率策略。

代写英文论文 :日本汽车制造商的竞争优势

Another important reason that is stated for the increase in efficiency is that of the low volume of productions. Companies such as Nissan and Toyota were more focused on quality. They were interested in what is called the small lot productions. Toyota and Nissan after World War II found the need to expand, but also had to expand in such a way that they produced products with quality but of a small volume. Applying the OLI framework, even in internationalization the companies still followed their small lot production. The US automakers worked on the mass production philosophy while Japanese automakers were focused on the small lot philosophy. Because of the production in small lots, Nissan and Toyota were able to produce a wider variety of models. An important aspect of the competitive advantage is that of differentiation. Japanese automakers were able to minimize costs and maximize product diversity. The main competitors of the Japanese firms were focused on maximizing economies of scale by ensuring a minimal diversified set of automobiles were manufactured. This was in direct contradiction to what Nissan and Toyota focused on (Cusumano, 2013). However, this did not mean that the companies never made use of mass production techniques. They used it differently. The existing mass production system allowed for the production of many parts in a faster way. US manufacturers produced these parts and then stored them to meet the necessary market demand as and when necessary. On the other hand, Japanese manufacturers started making use of those very components to meet differentiated demand in the market. For instance, in the years before the Second World War, Japan brought expensive equipment from the United States in order to set up some of its plants. The purchase of the equipment meant that Japan would have more extensive use of the equipment compared to using it at its multinational site. This was achieved by a direct agreement that Nissan made with Graham-Paige. Once the operations were completed the demands increased for trucks and engines in the Japanese army. Japan met this demand by making use of the components manufactured at said plants. However after World War II the demand for army market went down and hence most of the Japanese manufacturers were focused on making buses, trucks and cars. The same equipment used for the purpose of manufacturing for a target sector soon grew to include a more diversified sector. Even diversified products such as the passenger vehicles were seen to require many more changes such as in the options for passengers. Companies such as Nissan and Toyota produced basic models for the customers and then went on to improvise basic models such that there was better differentiation. The competitive strategy used by the companies in the form of low volumes was actually helpful as the companies could test out efficiency strategies.