(资料来源:Bickhoff, Hollensen和Opresnik, 2014)
在二元关系的情况下，需要考虑两个利益相关者。它是焦点公司和买家(巴特尔，2001)。供应商的成本和买方的价值所处的位置以及在他们之间形成的差距被称为剩余价值。双方相互合作，以增加价值。在这种情况下，竞争将根据所采购产品的总价值进行划分(Thompson and Strickland, 2001)。价值链中权力关系的动态取决于产品的供求概念。在此基础上，需要了解买方和卖方的关系(Schepker et al.， 2014)。研究发现，买卖双方的关系取决于三个因素。
It can be comprehended from this that the companies are bound by their positioning decisions, the boundary of the firm decisions, marketing and sales decisions along with the supply management decisions which need to be factored. These need to be considered. Another important notion in the downstream “dyadic” relationships needs to be factored.
(Source: Bickhoff, Hollensen and Opresnik, 2014)
In the case of the dyadic relationship, two stakeholders need to be considered. It is the focal firm and the buyer (Buttle, 2001). The supplier costs and value of the buyer places and the gaps that are found to have formed between them are known as the surplus value. The parties are found to collaborate and work with each other to add value. In this case, there will be competition that will be divided based on the total value of the products that are procured (Thompson and Strickland, 2001). The dynamics of the power relationship in the value chain depends on the notion of supply and demand for the product. Based on this, the buyer and seller relationship needs to be understood (Schepker et al., 2014). The buyer-supplier relationship is found to depend on three factors.
Utility: it is the actual function of the products.
Scarcity: it is the demand of the product in the market. Typically, if a product is in excess, the dominance would be reduced.
Information: This factor is based on the supplier and it focuses on what the buyer wants to and the internal budgeting processes. Based on these variables, there can be general discussions about the different kinds of relationships that can be forged in this situation (Hollensen, 2015).
The next important factor that the companies need to comprehend is the ways in which the companies interact with the different stakeholders who are involved in the production and distribution process. They can be divided into four generic variables.