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essay修改:性别话语建构对中国女性的影响

性别价值观和女性地位受中国传统文化和语言的影响。刘爽(2009)分析了中国出生性别比和儿童性别偏好,阐明了社会认知如何影响性别价值的基本观点。在最近的中国,大多数人仍然偏爱男孩而不是女孩。重男轻女是显而易见的,因为中国是男权社会,传统的等级观念给公民一个不变的生男孩的观念,可以为老年提供养老保障,继承家族的姓氏。对男孩的偏见表明,性别被认为是中国社会的生物决定论因素,因为女孩从出生起就没有相同的价值。女性的价值甚至受到了中国社会的质疑,因为女性在生女孩时总是受到歧视。社会拒绝像男人一样考虑女人的价值,有些人只把女人当作婴儿工厂而不是人。因此,性别偏好挑战的概念诞生了,哈斯兰格说“女人不是解剖学上的问题,而是社会问题”。在中国,尤其是农村地区,性别偏好对女性的生活有着严重的影响,性别价值的判断只能从外表来判断,而不是从性别是社会建构的理论来判断。另一方面,中国的性别状况要复杂得多,公民的性别偏好不仅受到生理因素的影响,也受到社会因素的影响。人们不愿意生女孩的原因是他们在意社会的想法,并受到潜意识的等级文化的影响。由此可见,女性是什么这个框架使得女性的地位变得不平等。此外,性别也可以被视为话语建构。

Gender values and female stature are influenced by Chinese traditional culture and language. Liu Shuang (2009) analyses sex ratio at birth and gender preference for children in China, which illustrates the basic idea of how social cognition could influence gender value. In recent China, most people still have strong preference for a boy rather than a girl. Preference for boy is obvious because China is patriarchal society, and the traditional notion of hierarchy gives citizens an immutable idea of giving birth to a boy could provide against for old age and inherit family’s name. The bias for boy shows that gender is considered to be a biological determinism factor in Chinese society as girls do not have the same value since they were born. Woman’s value are even questioned by Chinese society as woman always suffers discrimination when they give birth to a girl. Society refuse to consider woman’s value as same as man, some people only considers woman as the baby factories rather than a human. In consequence to it, the concept of gender preference challenge where Haslanger says “woman is not an anatomical concerning but a social matter” got born. In china especially in the rural areas, gender preference has serious impacts on woman’s life, and judgement on gender’s value is given only by their appearance against the theory that gender is socially constructed. On the other hand, Chinese gender situation is much more complicated, citizens have gender preference not only because of the biological factors but also the social factors. The reason people are not keen to give birth to a girl is that they care what society thinks and are influenced by their subconscious culture of hierarchy. So this shows that the framework of what female is makes female’s status unequal. Moreover, gender could also be seen as discursive construction.

essay修改 :性别话语建构对中国女性的影响

李金凤(2011)探讨了自20世纪以来,话语建构如何改变了中国女性的角色。他阐述了四种不同时期使用的口号的基本思想,以及这些口号与中国经济和政治问题的关系。第一个时期是在20世纪初,“我与男人是同一个人”、“我是我自己”等口号开始解放妇女,呼吁男女平等。第二阶段是文化大革命末期,“走出家门(参加革命或生产)”等口号开始流行。女性可以和男性做同样的工作,她们需要为国家经济发展做出贡献,而不是只关注家庭。第三个典型的口号是关于经济改革,中国政府关闭了对经济的关注,所以女性被要求花时间在家庭上。因此,出现了“嫁得好(嫁给有钱人)比工作得好”这样的口号。最后一个时期是90年代,受西方文化的影响,女性形象转变为自信的女性。因此,“为自己而美丽”这样的口号开始变得越来越占主导地位。通过对不同时代不同口号的分析,女性的地位随着不同的宣传而发生了变化。哈斯兰格说:“某物之所以(在很大程度上)以其本来的方式被随意地构造出来,是因为它的属性是什么,或者它是如何被分类的”(哈斯兰格,1995)。根据哈斯兰格的理论,一个人被归类为女性是影响人们如何看待她的一个因素。不同的口号不时地将女性的地位机动化,并以不同的方式对待女性,这说明性别是一种话语建构,社会有力量改变女性形象。

Jinfeng Li (2011) discusses how discursive construction have changed the roles of women in China since 20th century. He illustrates the basic idea of four different kinds of slogans used in the different time periods and how these slogans are related to Chinese economy and political issues. The first period is at the beginning of 20th century, when the slogans such as “I am the same person as men” or “I am myself” began to emancipate woman and appeal equality between woman and man. The second period is at the end of Cultural Revolution, where slogan such as “Go outside the home (to take part in the Revolution or the Production)” became popular. Woman can do the same job as man and they need to contribute to the national economic development rather than only paying attention to their family. The third typical slogan was in terms of economic reform, Chinese government shut its attention towards economy so woman were asked to devote time to their family. Consequently, slogan such as “Marrying well (marrying a rich man) is better than working well” appeared. The last period was in 1990s, which was influenced by western culture and woman’s image transformed into confident woman. So the slogan such as “Just be beautiful for myself” started to become more and more dominant. By analysing different slogan in different eras, woman’s status have been changed as per various propagandas. Haslanger says “something is discursively constructed just (to a significant extent) the way it is because what it is attributed to it or how it is classified” (Haslanger, 1995). According to Haslanger’s theory, one being categorized as a female has been a factor in how she has been viewed (19). Different slogan motorized woman’s status from time to time and treated them differently which demonstrated that gender is discursive construction and society has the power change the image of females than what it should be.