Gender values and female stature are influenced by Chinese traditional culture and language. Liu Shuang (2009) analyses sex ratio at birth and gender preference for children in China, which illustrates the basic idea of how social cognition could influence gender value. In recent China, most people still have strong preference for a boy rather than a girl. Preference for boy is obvious because China is patriarchal society, and the traditional notion of hierarchy gives citizens an immutable idea of giving birth to a boy could provide against for old age and inherit family’s name. The bias for boy shows that gender is considered to be a biological determinism factor in Chinese society as girls do not have the same value since they were born. Woman’s value are even questioned by Chinese society as woman always suffers discrimination when they give birth to a girl. Society refuse to consider woman’s value as same as man, some people only considers woman as the baby factories rather than a human. In consequence to it, the concept of gender preference challenge where Haslanger says “woman is not an anatomical concerning but a social matter” got born. In china especially in the rural areas, gender preference has serious impacts on woman’s life, and judgement on gender’s value is given only by their appearance against the theory that gender is socially constructed. On the other hand, Chinese gender situation is much more complicated, citizens have gender preference not only because of the biological factors but also the social factors. The reason people are not keen to give birth to a girl is that they care what society thinks and are influenced by their subconscious culture of hierarchy. So this shows that the framework of what female is makes female’s status unequal. Moreover, gender could also be seen as discursive construction.
Jinfeng Li (2011) discusses how discursive construction have changed the roles of women in China since 20th century. He illustrates the basic idea of four different kinds of slogans used in the different time periods and how these slogans are related to Chinese economy and political issues. The first period is at the beginning of 20th century, when the slogans such as “I am the same person as men” or “I am myself” began to emancipate woman and appeal equality between woman and man. The second period is at the end of Cultural Revolution, where slogan such as “Go outside the home (to take part in the Revolution or the Production)” became popular. Woman can do the same job as man and they need to contribute to the national economic development rather than only paying attention to their family. The third typical slogan was in terms of economic reform, Chinese government shut its attention towards economy so woman were asked to devote time to their family. Consequently, slogan such as “Marrying well (marrying a rich man) is better than working well” appeared. The last period was in 1990s, which was influenced by western culture and woman’s image transformed into confident woman. So the slogan such as “Just be beautiful for myself” started to become more and more dominant. By analysing different slogan in different eras, woman’s status have been changed as per various propagandas. Haslanger says “something is discursively constructed just (to a significant extent) the way it is because what it is attributed to it or how it is classified” (Haslanger, 1995). According to Haslanger’s theory, one being categorized as a female has been a factor in how she has been viewed (19). Different slogan motorized woman’s status from time to time and treated them differently which demonstrated that gender is discursive construction and society has the power change the image of females than what it should be.