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加拿大代写:国际营销标准化与适应性的争论

对于标准化程度或适应程度的争论,一直是国际营销领域的研究热点。Vignali和Vrontis(1999)的研究表明,辩论始于1961年,当时Elinder(1961)考虑了全球广告(Vrontis et al., 2009)。在此期间,广告和国际标准化是主要的辩论话题(Kanso and Kitchen, 2004)。国际广告标准化是企业推广的一种常见方式。然后,争论从广告扩展到促销组合和营销组合(Kanso和Kitchen, 2004)。更重要的是,Ryans等人(2003)声称,在过去的40年里,国际营销标准化领域的学术研究人员增加了很多。此外,随着时间的推移,经济和竞争环境已经发生了变化(Vrontis et al., 2009)。过去,经济发展寻求贸易的有利平衡,各公司努力增加出口并将成本减至最低。然而,这些公司后来认识到,由于经济环境的变化,将成本降到最低是不能令人满意的。因此,为了满足消费者的需求,企业开始应用更多的实用技术,变得更加以消费者为导向。跨国公司的全球营销战略由标准化向适应化转变。

提出标准化的研究人员认为,市场在范围和规模上日益同质化和全球化。他们认为企业标准化产品和服务的能力是生存和发展的关键(Levitt, 1983)。这些研究人员断言,消费者的需求、愿望和要求在不同的市场和国家不会有太大的不同。标准化可以通过规模经济降低成本,增加企业的利润,这使得标准化成为一种更有效的策略(Levitt, 1983)。从概念上讲,从环境因素和消费者需求的角度来看,世界正在变得互补,无论地理位置的不同,消费者的需求都是相同的。(Vrontis等,2009)。

此外,支持适应的研究人员指出了使用标准化方法支持市场裁剪和适应不同的国际市场的困难(Thrassou和Vrontis, 2006)。此外,他们认为国家和地区之间存在着不可克服的差异(Papavassiliou and Stathakopoulos, 1997)。营销人员容易受到许多宏观环境因素的影响,包括气候、种族、法律、职业、文化、技术和社会(Czinkota和Ronkainen, 1998)。这些因素已经扩展到消费者的品味、处置收入、税收、民族主义、当地劳动力成本、识字率和教育水平(Paliwoda和Thomas, 1999)。此外,不同需求的消费者可以通过适应性感知到更大的价值传递(Harvey, 1993)。因此,如何调整跨国公司的营销策略和策略,以满足市场营销的需要,是非常必要的。

加拿大代写 :国际营销标准化与适应性的争论

As for the dispute over the extent of standardization or adaptation, it has always been the research hotspot in the scope of international marketing. Vignali and Vrontis (1999) demonstrated that the debate firstly began in 1961 when Elinder (1961) considered it with respect to worldwide advertising (Vrontis et al., 2009). During that period, advertising and international standardization was the main debate topic (Kanso and Kitchen, 2004). International advertising standardization was a common way for the promotion of companies. Then this debate expanded from advertising to promotional mix and the marketing mix (Kanso and Kitchen, 2004). What’s more, Ryans et al. (2003) claimed that academic researchers in the area of international marketing standardization have increased a lot in the past 40 years. Moreover, the economic and competitive circumstances have changed over the period of time (Vrontis et al., 2009). In the past, economic development sought for a favourable balance of trade and the firms strived for increasing the exports and reducing the costs to the minimum. However, the firms later realized that minimizing the costs was not satisfactory for the sake of changes in economic circumstances. Therefore, in order to meet the consumers’ needs, the firms began to apply more practical techniques and became more consumer-oriented. The trend of global marketing strategy among multinational companies shifts from standardization to adaptation.
Researchers who propose standardization viewed the market as increasingly homogeneous and global in scope and scale. They believed that the ability of firms to standardize goods and services is the key to survive and grow (Levitt, 1983). Those researchers asserted that consumers’ needs, wants and requirements won’t be all that different across the diverse markets and nations. Standardization can reduce the costs through the economies of scale and increase the profits for firms, which makes it a more efficient strategy (Levitt, 1983). Conceptually, from the perspective of the environmental factors and customers’ needs, the world is becoming complementary and consumers have the same demands whatever the difference in the geographical locations are. (Vrontis et al., 2009).
Further, researchers who were in favor of adaptation pointed out the difficulties in using a standardized approach to support market tailoring and adaptation to different international markets (Thrassou and Vrontis, 2006). Moreover, they argued that there exist invincible differences between countries and regions (Papavassiliou and Stathakopoulos, 1997). Marketers are easy to be influenced by many macro-environmental factors, including the climate, race, law, occupations, culture, technology and society (Czinkota and Ronkainen, 1998). The factors have been expanded to consumer tastes, disposal income, taxation, nationalism, local labor costs, literacy and education level (Paliwoda and Thomas, 1999). Moreover, consumers with different needs can perceive greater value delivery via adaptation (Harvey, 1993). Therefore, it is of great necessity for the multinational corporations to find out ways to adjust their marketing strategies and tactics so as to satisfy the marketing requirements.