Assignment First

加拿大代写:加拿大家庭娱乐支出的因素和变量

本报告试图分析决定和影响加拿大家庭娱乐支出的因素和变量。休闲支出很重要,因为它不仅提高了居民的生活质量,而且促进了经济中的旅游业。

这里遵循计量经济学模型的基本方程为:

康乐开支= f(个人性格、社会性格)

在那里,

个性是指一个人的性别、教育程度、年龄等方面的特征。

社会特征是指家庭收入、地理位置等与整个家庭相对应的特征。

模型的解释力为38.8%,在1%的显著性水平上显著。模型中存在多重共线性的可能性较小,因为存在多重共线性时,变量失去了统计意义,模型的解释力非常强(Greene, 2000)。然而,这并不适用于此模型。由于规格误差,模型可以是异方差的。异方差的存在往往是由于规范误差造成的。从图1可以明显看出,线性模型可能不是一个很好的因变量规范。

收入对数系数为1.119,在1%的显著性水平下具有统计学意义。这意味着,对于收入日志中的单位增长,当所有其他变量保持不变时,家庭娱乐支出日志增加了1.119。性别系数为负,说明加拿大女性比男性更倾向于娱乐活动。教育系数也为负,在5%的显著性水平上显著。这意味着,一个单位的教育增加,日志的娱乐支出可能减少0.009。社会救助系数也为负。由于该变量对接受社会援助的家庭取的值为1,因此负系数意味着这些家庭从事娱乐活动的可能性较小。在省级虚拟变量中,只有与魁北克、萨斯喀彻温省和不列颠哥伦比亚省对应的假人具有显著性。这里的基本类别是安大略。由于魁北克的系数是负的,魁北克人在这类活动上的花费比安大略人要少。另一方面,来自萨斯喀彻温省和不列颠哥伦比亚省的人更有可能这样做。农村家庭的消费系数为负,这意味着这些家庭在休闲活动上的支出预计会减少。年龄系数为-0.018,这意味着加拿大人的年龄每增加一个单位,娱乐支出的日志预计会减少0.018。

对于单位收入增长日志,娱乐活动支出增长日志大于1。这意味着加拿大人更喜欢在娱乐活动上花钱。然而,这种愿望仅限于某些领域。像农村地区不花很多钱在娱乐活动,一些省份的人也是如此。需要有一个适当的计划来刺激这些开支。这是重要的,因为在这类活动中的支出导致更好的生活质量,从而导致更好的人类生产力。由于年龄对娱乐消费有负面影响,需要为老年人开发专门的娱乐渠道。

加拿大代写 :加拿大家庭娱乐支出的因素和变量

This report tries to analyse the factors and variables that determine and influence the recreational expenditure of the households in Canada. Recreational expenditures are important because not only do they improve the quality of life of the residents, but also boost tourism in the economy.
The basic equation to follow the econometric model for the purpose here is:
Recreational Expenditure = f (Individual Characters, Social Characters)
Where,
Individual Characters refer to those characteristics that pertain to an individual like his or her gender, education, age etc.
Social Characters refer to those characteristics that correspond to the whole household like the household income, geographical location and so on.
The explanatory power of the model is 38.8% and the model is significant at 1% level of significance. The presence of multicollinearity is less likely in the model because in the presence of multicollinearity, the variables lose their statistical significance and the explanatory power of the model increases very strongly (Greene, 2000). This however does not hold for this model. The model can be heteroskedastic because of specification error. The presence of heteroskedasticity is often found due to specification error. It is evident from figure 1 that a linear model might not be a good specification for the dependent variable.
The coefficient of log of income is 1.119 and is statistically significant at 1% level of significance. This means that for a unit increase in the log of income, the log of recreational expenditures in the household increases by 1.119 when all other variables are held constant. The coefficient of sex is negative implying that females are more inclined towards recreational activities than males in Canada. The coefficient of education is also negative and is significant at 5% level of significance. This implies that for a unit increase in the education, the log of recreational expenditures is likely to reduce by 0.009. The coefficient of social assistance is also negative. Since the variable takes a value of 1 for the households which receive social assistance, the negative coefficient implies that such families are less likely to engage much in recreational activities. Among the provincial dummy variables only the dummies corresponding to Quebec, Saskatchewan and British Columbia are significant. The base category here is Ontario. Since the coefficient of Quebec is negative, the people of Quebec are less likely to spend on such activities as compared to Ontario. On the other hand, people from Saskatchewan and British Columbia are more likely to do so. The coefficient of rural households is negative, implying that these households are expected to spend less on recreational activities. The coefficient of age is -0.018 which implies that for a unit increase in the age of the Canadians, the log of recreational expenses is expected to decline by 0.018.
For a unit increase in log of income, the increase in log of expenses on recreational activities is more than 1. This means that the people in Canada prefer spending on recreational activities. However, the desire is limited to certain areas. Like Rural areas do not spend much on recreational activities and so do people of certain provinces. There needs to be a program in place to stimulate such expenses. It is important because expenditure in such activities leads to a better quality of life which in turn leads to better human productivity. Since age has a negative effect on recreational expenses, dedicated recreational avenues need to be developed for people of higher ages.