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加拿大代写:经济学理论分析

巴斯夏是自由资本主义的狂热追随者之一。他非常重视社会中僵化的保守派。在《经济和谐》一书中,对驳斥社会中的阶级冲突给予的重视是显而易见的。巴斯夏探索并指出,所有的人类互动都只是基于他们的功能功利主义理论(Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p.184)。在他的分析中探讨了交换理论的功利主义概念。他把政治经济学简化为一种科学体系,对工人阶级人民有一定的程序上的等级控制。经济学家质疑这些纯粹的功利主义理论。市场价格和自然价格是两种价格类型。市场价格是由市场经济决定的。另一方面,自然价格是由生产成本所需的实际成本控制的。产品的定价是由供求关系决定的。如果供给高,市场价格就会受到影响。产品的自然价格随之降低,这就导致价格变得更低。资本主义政府有保护富人不受穷人伤害的倾向。有一只看不见的手控制着劳动者。这本质上是资本主义的贪婪。亚当·斯密提出了“看不见的手”的概念(Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p.43)。高年级学生的禁欲理论认为,富人之所以存钱,是因为这是他们阶级的期望。他们省钱是因为这标志着他们在社会上的形象。虚荣被认为是贪婪和囤积物质财富的首要原因。资深人士观察到,人们获得财富的根本原因有两个。一种是通过个人努力获得财富,另一种是通过继承。这种继承观念违背了资本主义的价值观。它并没有反映在个体生产的价值上(Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011,第143页)。它是基于这样一个事实,即人们被赋予财富,他们没有能力通过自己的个人努力获得财富。

Bastiat was one of the ardent followers of Laissez faire capitalism. He gave a lot of importance to rigid conservatives in the societies. In the book “Economic Harmonies” the importance given towards refuting class conflict in societies was evident. Bastiat explored and stated that all human interactions were merely based on their functional utilitarian theory (Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p.184). Theory of exchange the notions of utilitarianism was explored in his analysis. He reduced the political economy to a scientific system where there was certain procedural hierarchical control over the working class people. Economists questioned these pure utilitarian theories. Market price and natural price are the two types of prices. Market price is devised by market economics. Natural price on the other hand was controlled by the actual cost that is required for the cost of production. Pricing of the product is determined by supply and demand. If supply is high the market price becomes affected. Subsequent to this natural price of the product is lower this leads to pricing becoming lower. Capitalistic governments have tendency to protect the rich from the poor. There is an invisible hand that controls the laborers. It is essentially capitalistic greed. Adam Smith proposed invisible hand concept (Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p.43). Senior’s theory on abstinence states that rich people save money because it was expected of their class. They save money because it marked how they were construed in society. Vanity is considered to be number one reason for greed and hoarding of material wealth. Observations made by Senior were that people fundamentally acquire wealth by two main factors. One was by earning of wealth by individual efforts and the other was by inheritance. This notion of inheritance was against the values of capitalism. It is not mirrored on the value of individual production (Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p. 143). It was based on the fact that people were bestowed with wealth and they did not have the capacity to acquire wealth by their own individual efforts。

加拿大代写:经济学理论分析

根据像亚当·斯密这样的著名理论家的观点,他们认为有许多相互关联的系统定义了经济的方向。狩猎、放牧、农业和商业是史密斯划分社会的四个不同部分。据史密斯所说,经济是由一只看不见的手控制的。存在着一个明确的等级社会。在这个社会中,贵族或实质上是地主控制着劳动者(Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011,第43页)。工人和资本家在工资和生产问题上有一场内部斗争。这不是一场平等的斗争。这些因素导致了不同社会的阶级冲突。资本主义垄断社会存在着一种内部斗争。这就是社会阶级冲突的根本原因。由于资本主义的存在,社会上出现了劳动分工,资本主义与劳动者之间的差距越来越大。孩子们成为契约学徒。女工和男工一样受到严厉的对待。由于这些问题,社会动荡,暴乱在社会中爆发。阶级冲突是社会动荡的根源(Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p. 47)。斯密的价值理论为马克思和李嘉图奠定了理论基础。

According to eminent theorists like Adam Smith they see a number of interconnected systems that define the direction of the economy. Hunting, pasturage, farming and business were the four different sectors that Smith divided the societies. According to Smith an invisible hand controlled the economies. There was a definitive hierarchical society that existed. In this society the nobility or essentially the landlords controlled the laborers (Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p. 43). There was an internal struggle between laborers and capitalists over wages and production. This was not a struggle of equals. These factors lead to class conflict in the different societies. There was an in internal struggle that existed in the Capitalist monopolized societies. This was essentially the reason for class conflict in the societies. Owing to capitalism there was division of labor and the gap between the capitalist and the laborers increased in societies. Children were made indentured apprentices. Women laborers were treated just as harshly as the men. Social upheavals, riots erupted in the societies owing to these issues. Class conflict was the root of upheaval in societies (Hunt & Lautzenheiser, 2011, p. 47). Smith’s value theory laid foundation to Karl Marx and David Ricardo theory.