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加拿大酒店管理学论文代写:灾难是变革之源

灾难作为变革催化剂的概念是研究人员一致同意的一点(Nelson, 2014;休斯顿,2013;Davoudi,2011)。灾难改变了这座城市的运作方式,改变了它的一些政策、治理风格和前景。灾难管理团队接管并在处理灾难问题中发挥关键作用,有时,如果变更管理实际上为城市提供了比之前更好的服务,那么变更管理可能会成为永久的秩序。Solnit(2009)认为旧秩序可能会占上风,新秩序可能会取而代之。新秩序可以是更压迫人的,也可以是更好的。Gunderson和Holling(2002)的自适应循环的panarch模型支持这一观点。


加拿大酒店管理学论文代写 :灾难是变革之源

在这个模型中,一个系统和城市的形成有四个明显的变化,分别是增长或开发、保护、释放或创造性破坏和组织。当第一个循环导致系统的开发和稳定时,第二个循环导致系统的僵化,因为规则和协议已经就位。Simmie和Martin(2010)认为,这几乎是在同一时间,城市的弹性随着事故的发生而减弱,导致了Olsson等人(2006)所称的机会之窗。霍林将此称为Omega阶段,即破坏会带来一些好的结果,比如对城市景观的有益改造(Gunderson & Holling, 2002)。Davoudi et al.(2012)弹性理论也将逆境视为转变的基础,因为逆境会产生更好的解释和理解,也会产生死胡同。固有的不确定性、对平衡的排斥以及对进化和转变的更好理解,实际上将是理解卡特里娜飓风过后新奥尔良局势的可靠途径。


加拿大酒店管理学论文代写 :灾难是变革之源

The notion of a disaster as a catalyst for change is a point agreed upon by researchers (Nelson, 2014; Houston, 2013; Davoudi, 2011). Disasters change the way the city works, some of its policies, style of governances and outlook. Disaster management teams take over and play a critical role in addressing the issues of the disaster and sometimes the change management might become a permanent order if it is in fact serving a better cause for the city than the order that existed before this. Solnit (2009) argument is that an old order might prevail or a new order might take its place. The new order could be more oppressive or it could be a better one. The panarchy model of adaptive cycle by Gunderson and Holling, (2002) supports this idea.


加拿大酒店管理学论文代写 :灾难是变革之源

In this model there are four distinct changes in the formation of a system and a city which are growth or exploitation, conservation, release or creative destruction and organization. While the first loop results in development and stabilization of systems, the second loop leads to rigidification of system as rules and protocols fall into place. Simmie and Martin (2010) argue that this is about the same time that the city’s resilience decreases as it becomes prone for an accident to happen, resulting in what Olsson et al. (2006) dubs the window of opportunity. Holling terms this as the Omega phase when a destruction results in something good, like a beneficial transformation for the cityscape (Gunderson & Holling, 2002). Davoudi et al. (2012) resilience theory also views adversity as a basis for transformation as it generates better interpretations and understanding as well as dead ends. Inherent uncertainties, the rejection of equilibrium and a better understanding of evolution and transformation will actually be a reliable way to understand the situation of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.