Assignment First


1、根据Robinson(1994)和Thamhain(1988),一个团队可以被定义为一个人的总和,但是每一个团体都没有资格被称为一个团队(Robinson,1994; Thamhain,1988)。根据1994年的卡岑巴赫和史密斯,一个团队是一群人,其中包括各种各样的技能,其目标是实现一般目的,绩效目标和一般方法,每个成员以相互的方式负责(Robinson,1994; Thamhain 1988)。

2.根据Edgar Schein(1985),工作组是一个组织工作的组织的员工,重点是个人目标(Schein,1985)。


4.绩效评估是团队战略意识的第四阶段,并且了解他们需要做什么。团队成员有共同的愿景,他们不需要对领导者进行一致的监督(Craps,2004; Dercon,2004)。

5.根据Scott Peck(1971),与Tuckman的模式相反,是团体的发展模式。聚集在一起的几个陌生人组成的团体必须面对3个不同的阶段(Idrissou et al。2011a)


7.Putnam(1985)指出,将冲突管理划分为被称为通过交换建议或反倾销的谈判,以达成满足工作组和有关团队的解决办法(Bailey,2007)。冲突涉及不同的看法,根据Lewitt(1999),其中包括传统观念,人际关系和相互矛盾的互动主义观点(Craps,2004; Dercon,2004)。

8.根据Putnam(1992)和Roloff(1994)的讨论,当不止一方相互依赖地认识到工作组的目标是不相容的(Aarts,et al。,2013)。

Fisher,et al。 (1991)(Baron,2006; Kenny,2006),描述了要表征的谈判




1.According to Robinson (1994) and Thamhain (1988), a team can be defined as an aggregate of people but every group does not get qualified to be known as a team (Robinson, 1994; Thamhain, 1988). As per Katzenbach and Smith, 1994, however a team is a group of people consisting of varied skills having an aim at a general purpose, goals of performance and general approach to which each member is accountable in a mutual manner (Robinson, 1994; Thamhain 1988).

2.According to Edgar Schein (1985), work groups are employees of an organization working in aggregation to each other with a focus on individual goals (Schein, 1985).

3.Stage 3 is norming wherein agreement begins to form and leader facilitation is enhanced. Individual team members acknowledge their roles and responsibilities due to which conflict does not arise (Mancero, et al., 2011b)

4.Performing is the fourth stage where teams are aware strategically and have knowledge of what they further need to do. There is a shared vision of the team members and they do not require consistent supervision of the leader (Craps, 2004; Dercon, 2004).

5.According to Scott Peck (1971), on the contrary to Tuckman’s model, is the development model of groups. A group with several strangers aggregated together for creating a group has to be face 3 different phases (Idrissou et al. 2011a)

6.According to Gray (2007), Conflict is defined traditionally as the incompatible activity perception between work groups with regard to aims, perceptions and beliefs which can cause a barrier towards effective goal achievement (Idrissou, et al., 2011a).

7.Putnam (1985), led towards delineating conflict management to be termed as negotiation characterized through exchanging proposals or counterproposals as a way to reach a settlement which satisfies the work groups and involved teams (Bailey, 2007). Conflict involves different perceptions according to Lewitt (1999), which are inclusive of traditional perception, human relations and conflicting interactionist views (Craps, 2004; Dercon, 2004).

8.According to Putnam (1992) and Roloff (1994), negotiation takes place when more than one parties interdependently perceive the goals of work groups to be incompatible (Aarts, et al., 2013).

9.Fisher, et al. (1991) (Baron, 2006; Kenny, 2006), describe negotiation to be characterized

10.As per the study elaborated by O Hair (2010), it was evidently stated that there exists a relationship between negotiation and communication to solve conflicts between work groups and teams (Bijlsma, et al., 2011)

11.Work group’s influence in effective management of employees which was proved by using dominant patterns of behaviour, work group’s dynamics and elaborate conflicts leading towards adverse impact on the organization culture (Lee, et al., 2005).