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加拿大统计学论文怎么写:实证分析

对两国的实证分析报告进行了分析,这两个国家是加拿大和印度的发展中国家。这些国家的选择是武断的,但文献综述表明,影响经济生产力的因素应该是相同的。然而,实证分析所考虑的时间范围是基于数据的可得性获得的。印度在1997年至2013年期间曾考虑过这一时期。政府在这一时期以外的教育支出无法提供数据。在一些过渡时期数据丢失时,用线性插值填补了印度的空白。根据政府在教育方面的支出数据,从1981年到2011年,加拿大的数据一直被采用。在缺少数据的情况下,用线性插值来填补空白。

加拿大统计学论文怎么写:实证分析
实证分析试图建立生产力与教育、环境与消费的实证关系。在这种情况下,生产率是由经济增长来衡量的。二氧化碳的排放被用作环境的替代物。一个更好的指标是温室气体排放,但印度对温室气体排放没有一个非常可靠的估计。因此,为了保持两种模型的一致性,在这两种模型中都使用了CO2排放。作为消费的代表,人均国民收入被使用。虽然人均国民收入是收入的更好指标,但消费也是由收入决定的。因此,它也可以作为消费的代理。教育数据不容易获得。在所有可用于教育的指标中,政府在教育方面的支出似乎是最好的指标。政府在教育上的支出增加意味着人们更容易接受教育。其结果是,员工的教育水平提高,使他们更有技能,更有生产力。

加拿大统计学论文怎么写:实证分析

The analysis for the empirical analysis report is done for two countries – a developed country which is Canada and a developing country which is India. The choice of the countries here is arbitrary but the literature review suggested that the factors impacting productivity in an economy should be the same. The range of period considered for the empirical analysis however is obtained based on the availability of data. The period considered for India is between 1997 and 2013. The data was unavailable for government spending on education beyond this period. When the data was missing for some interim period, linear interpolation was used to fill the gaps for India. The data for Canada has been taken from 1981 to 2011 based on availability of data of government spending on education. Where data was missing, linear interpolation is used to fill the gaps.

加拿大统计学论文怎么写:实证分析
The empirical analysis tries to establish empirical relation between productivity and education, environment and consumption. The productivity is measured by economic growth in this case. Carbon dioxide emission is used as a proxy for environment. A better indicator will be GHG emission but India does not have a very robust estimate of GHG emissions. Therefore, to maintain consistency across the two models, CO2 emissions have been used here for both the models. As a proxy of consumption, per capita national income is used. While per capita national income is a better proxy for income, consumption is also determined by income. Thus it can be used as a proxy of consumption as well. The data for education is not available easily. Of all the metrics available for education, the government expenditure on education seems to be the best available indicator. Higher government expenditure in education implies that education is more accessible to people. As a result, the education level of the workforce improves making them more skilled and more productive.