Assignment First

留学申请文书:笛卡尔的魔鬼观点

在他的第一次冥想中,笛卡尔在怀疑论的论证中提出了他邪恶的魔鬼论点。在讨论笛卡尔关于恶魔的论证时,需要记住的一个基本概念是,笛卡尔不是一个全球怀疑论者。以魔鬼为基础的论证排除了很多关于人们看待外部世界的知识,除了关于自我、我们的思想、上帝等的知识。任何通过我们的感官在外部世界中感知到的东西也可以被排除在外。然而,这种形式的恶魔论证不同于关于感觉错觉错误和做梦的论证。要理解这种区别,可以考虑感官错觉。

留学申请文书:笛卡尔的魔鬼观点

然而,就魔鬼逻辑而言,笛卡尔引入的是另一个挑战我们认知方式的因素。我们触摸某物,它是冷的,然后我们假设它是冷的;这里没有幻想。然而,笛卡尔关于恶魔的观点让我们明白到目前为止我们所理解的冷,可能并不是真的因为引入了另一条正确的信息。

根据认知闭合,当某些条件得到满足时,代理人将满足关闭。第一次冥想的挑战是笛卡尔怀疑论的本质和结构以及对笛卡尔怀疑论的回应因此必须被理解才能假设这个论点成立,并且这个论点不能在所有情况下都成立。这个论证只是可能存在的一种可能性。

留学申请文书:笛卡尔的魔鬼观点

In his first meditation, Descartes presents his evil demon argument in his reasoning for skepticism. A primary conception to retain in mind as one discusses Descartes’s evil demon argument is that Descartes is not a global skeptic.The argument on the basis of the demon rules out much knowledge that people have regarded the external world, except the knowledge of self, our mind, god, etc. Anything that is perceived via our senses in the external world could be ruled out, too. However, this form of a demon argument is different from the argument that was made as for the sensory illusion errors and dreaming. To understand the difference, consider sensory illusions.

留学申请文书:笛卡尔的魔鬼观点

However, in the case of the demon logic, what Descartes introduces is another factor that challenges even the way we perceive. We touch something and it is cold, then we assume it is cold; here there are no illusions. However, Descartes idea of the Demon makes us understand that what we have so far understood to be cold, might not actually be so because of the introduction of another piece of information that is true.
According to epistemic closure, an agent will satisfy closure when some conditions are satisfied. The challenge in first meditation is that the nature and structure of Cartesian skeptical arguments and the responses to the Cartesian skeptical argument would hence have to be understood in order to assume the argument to hold, and the argument cannot be expected to hold valid for all circumstances. The argument is just a possibility that could also exist.