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论文写作服务:旷工的理论模型及关键预测

一些研究人员已努力将有关劳动力需求的考虑考虑在内。根据Allen(1981)的旷工理论模型,通过建立享乐框架(Allen 1981a)将旷工视为与薪酬包相关的非金钱属性(non- pecuniary attribute)。报价函数是由Allen推导出来的,它是关于一个雇主,表明了缺勤率和工资的总和,并且愿意提供一定数额的利润。假设每一个雇主都是按照这样一条曲线来分类的,那么每条曲线的包络线将有助于产生市场上存在的缺额和工资之间的权衡(Allen 1981b)。在类似的意义上,一个家庭关于无差异曲线的代表缺席和工资之间的偏好可以派生出的每一个个体,谁会选择用人单位,这样有一个切线曲线对信封提供曲线的每一个雇主。假设缺勤是工作的一个令人满意的属性,该模型有助于预测缺勤与工资率之间的反向关系。尽管享乐主义方法似乎同时考虑了劳动力供给和劳动力需求两方面的因素,但令人失望的是,后续作者未能追随艾伦(Blundell和Walker 2003)的领导。

许多证据支持这种说法,即在每周工作时间相当高的行业中,缺勤率更高。所有这些都强调灵活性在决定缺勤决定方面发挥着至关重要的作用。但是,不能认为这一特定领域有问题,因为作为一个概念,在界定和衡量灵活性方面面临困难(Allen 1981b)。Allen(1981)在回归方程中加入了虚拟变量来表示灵活性。在估计系数中存在显著性,有迹象表明,每天在同一小时工作的工人群体被划分为较高的缺勤范围(Bosworth等,1996年)。

Allen(1981)所表达的选择机制包括使用带有快乐工资的等式,通过创造与旷工有关的补偿差异,在预期缺勤和潜在劳动力所面临的工资之间找到一种平衡(Allen 1981b)。按照这种特殊的方法,缺勤被认为是工作的一个属性,艾伦(1981)根据这一属性曾说过:

“在保住工作的同时不断错过工作的能力是许多工人所向往的工作特征,不管这段时间是用来从短期疾病中恢复还是享受三天的周末”(Allen, 1981;332)。

然而,艾伦的模型倾向于遵循这样的原则:工资只有在没有变化的情况下才会发生调整。隐含的假设是,个人效用函数中的其他参数是固定的。因此,在某种意义上,可能对与劳动力供应决定有关的若干方面一无所知。然而,这些结果并不完全适用于那些寻求探索决定观察到的缺勤行为的因素的人,一般来说,这有助于表明,最年轻和年龄最大的雇员中存在着集中的缺勤现象(Killingsworth, 1983年)。

这提供了几个事实的暗示。首先,特定工资与旷工相关的弹性为负值,但对每一组都不显著。进一步说,与男性的缺勤率相比,女性的缺勤率更高(Allen 1981a)。与员工相关的情况具有非常重要的意义,在危险的工作环境中,员工的旷工率较高,而在工作时长方面的灵活性较小。


论文写作服务 :旷工的理论模型及关键预测

A number of researchers have endeavoured for the incorporation of considerations regarding labour demand. According to the theoretical model of absenteeism by Allen (1981), absenteeism is treated as a non- pecuniary attribute related to the package of compensation by the development of hedonic framework (Allen 1981a). The offer function has been derived by Allen regarding an employer indicating the combined rates of absence and wage within the willingness of provision at a specific amount of profit. Provided that each and every employer is categorized by such a curve of offer, the enveloped of each and every curve will help in yielding the trade- off between absence and wages in existence across the market (Allen 1981b). In the similar sense, a family regarding the curves of indifference represents the preferences between absence and wages can be derived out of each and every individual, who will be choosing the employer such that there is a tangent curve of indifference to the envelope regarding the offer curves of every employer. Provided that absence is an agreeable attribute of job, the model helps in predicting the inverse relationship between absence and wage rates. Even though the hedonic approach seems to be incorporating both, the considerations of labour supply and labour demand, it is disappointing to state that there has been failure of subsequent authors for following the lead of Allen (Blundell and Walker 2003).
A number of evidences support the claim that rates of absence is higher across industries in which the hours at work on weekly basis is considerably high. All of this lays emphasis on flexibility playing a crucial role to determine the decisions of absence. However, this particular area cannot be considered problematic, with respect to the fact that as a concept, difficulty is faced in defining and measuring flexibility (Allen 1981b). Allen (1981) has incorporated variables of dummy within his equation of regression for the representation of flexibility. There lies significance in the estimated coefficient and there is an indication that worker groups have been working in the same hours on daily basis are categorized by a higher scope of absence (Bosworth et al. 1996).
The mechanism of selection as expressed by Allen (1981) involves the use of equations with hedonic wage capturing the idea that there lies a trade- off between expected absence and wages faced by potential work force, by the creation of compensating differentials related to absenteeism (Allen 1981b). As per this particular approach, absence is considered as an attribute of job, based on which the following statement has been remarked by Allen (1981):
“The ability to miss work repeatedly while keeping one’s job is a job characteristic desirable to many workers, regardless of whether that time is spent recovering from short-term illnesses or enjoying three-day weekends” (Allen, 1981; 332).
However, the model by Allen tends to be operating over the principle that there is adjustment of wage only as changes take place in absence. The implicit assumption is that the other arguments within the utility function of an individual are fixed. In a consequent sense, there can be ignorance for a number of aspects related to the decision of labour supply. However, the results are not completely with respect to the ones who seek for exploring the factors determining observed behaviour of absence, in general, which helps in suggesting that there is concentration of absenteeism among the youngest and the oldest employees (Killingsworth 1983).
This provides an implication of several facts. Firstly, the elasticity related to absenteeism for a specific wage holds a negative value, but is not significant for each and every group. Further ahead, the rates of absenteeism in female are higher in comparison with the rates of absenteeism in male (Allen 1981a). There lies huge significance for condition related to employees, who the level of absenteeism is high in the scenario of dangerous work place and less where there lies flexibility regarding the duration of hours.