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personal statement 代写:有关歧视的理论概念

由于这个概念是一个基本的概念,有几个理论可以帮助理解歧视。第一种分类是正统的区分理论,其中有需求侧和供给侧的扩展。供给侧的理论涉及到人力资本和家庭专业化。在需求侧扩展方面,理论主张雇主有歧视偏好(Wright et al . 2011)。贝歇尔认为,当一个人有一种歧视的品味时,他们需要表现得好像他们有意愿把一些东西给一些人,而不是其他人。Adnett等人(2000)也在同样的分类下提出,只有非歧视的雇主才能生存,因此歧视一直表明市场本质上是非竞争的。

另一种分类是选择性判别理论,模型根据类别进行分类。第一个关键是分割,然后是双重劳动力市场和预备役部队。对于分割,有人认为,当工人的团结程度高时,它会阻碍剩余价值。根据Gintis(2005)的观点,资本主义需要组织生产过程,以最小化工人联盟的形成(Healy et al . 2011)。索耶表示,另一方面,有人认为,不同的工作组之间存在对立,这使得雇主能够对劳动过程行使更多的控制。

下一个理论是双重劳动力市场,这是理解歧视及其不同形式的最关键的。比奇(Beechey)和帕金斯(Perkins)等人认为,二元劳动力市场是将劳动力市场细分为初级和次级两个部分的市场(Bradley 1999)。据他们说,第一部门的工人比第二管理系统的工人要经历更多的工资水平和稳定性问题。他们进一步指出,各部门在运作方式上有很大不同,因此劳工流动受到严重限制。

根据二元系统模型,不同的研究者如Cockburn(2002)都认为父权制和资本主义可能是共同运作的。根据Harmann(2001)的观点,有人认为资本主义两种制度的交叉以及父权制下的工作性别隔离导致了每一种制度的主导群体的形成以及资本主义制度的培育(Collinson et al . 1990)。

还有其他一些基本理论也可以用来理解种族歧视。包括社会认同、群体间影响的态度、刻板印象地图、厌恶种族主义理论和制度正当性理论。


personal statement 代写 :有关歧视的理论概念

As the concept is an essential one, there are several theories that help in understanding discrimination. First categorization is Orthodox discrimination theories in which there are extensions to demand side and supply side. The theories from supply side involve human capital and family specialization. On the demand side extension, the theories advocate that employers have a discrimination preference (Wright et al 2011). Becher argued that when individuals have a discrimination taste, then they need to act as if they have the will to give something to be related to some people rather than the others. It has also been argued under the same classification by Adnett et al, (2000) that only employers who are non-discriminatory can survive, and therefore discrimination has persistently indicated towards markets that are non-competitive in nature.
Other categorization is alternative discrimination theories where models are classified as based on class. The first key is segmentation, then dual labour markets and reserve army. For segmentation, it has been argued that when solidarity of workers is high, it thwarts surplus value. According to Gintis (2005), it has been argued that capitalist needs to organize the process of production for minimizing the worker coalition formation (Healy et al 2011). According to Sawyer, on the other hand, it has been argued that there is antagonism between distinct working groups which allows employers to engage in exercising more control on the process of labour.
Next theory is dual labour markets which are the most crucial in understanding discrimination and its distinct forms. According to Beechey and Perkins et al, it has been argued that dual labour market is the one where there are subdivisions into sectors of primary and secondary nature (Bradley 1999). According to them, workers in the primary sector are the ones who have to experience more pay level and stability based issues than the ones in the secondary management system. They further argued that sectors are different in operating in distinct ways substantially and such that labour movement is limited severely.
As per the dual systems model, it has been argued by various researchers such as Cockburn, (2002) that patriarchy and capitalism might be collectively operating. According to Harmann, (2001), it has been argued that segregation of job through sex with regard to capitalism two systems intersection as well as patriarchy results in dominant groups of every system to formulate along with capitalist system to foster (Collinson et al 1990).
There are other essential theories as well which can be used for understanding racial discrimination. These are inclusive of social identity, attitude from inter-group influence and map of stereotyping, theory of aversive racism and theory of system justification.