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  本篇温哥华代写-北极环境的可持续管理讨论了不同的利益相关者,以及为什么不同的利益相关者支持制定和实施可持续管理所需的软法律。这里需要利益相关者的全面支持,因为北极系统不能通过领土规则来监控。不同的领土聚集在这里,一个国家不能分享立法和执法的优势。这也是北极治理形成复杂的条约和协定体系的主要原因。本篇温哥华代写文章由加拿大第一论文 Assignment First辅导网整理,供大家参考阅读。

  Sustainable Management of the Arctic environment and complete stakeholder support

  Different stakeholders and why diverse stakeholders support in soft laws formulation and enforcement required for sustainable management are discussed here. A complete stakeholder support is required here as the Arctic system cannot be monitored by means of territorial rules. Different territories are convened here and one nation could not share legislation and enforcement advantages. This is also the primary reason that a complex system of treaties and agreements are formed for Arctic governance (Stokke, 2007, p.402-408). Given this context, it is not just state level actors that are required for adequate governance; the non-state actors are also required. Innovative mechanisms are needed. The indigenous people living in the area are also to be considered in any legislative formulation or enforcement attempt. Without this form of complete stakeholder support, there could be disputes in Arctic governance. The strategies used as well as the soft laws would not lead to a sustainable management practice.

  2.4. Representation in Arctic Governance

  All stakeholders in the form of the surrounding regions are represented in the Arctic governance. This includes Canada, the United States, Denmark, Finland, Iceland and others. The representation in Arctic Governance is quite distributed when it comes to each of these regions as discussed in the above subsections (Rayfuse, 2008, p. 3-10). However, stakeholders often suffer because of the form of application of enforcements that exist. There are often confusions as to who should avail of what legislation. The Ocean boundary dispute is one of the challenges perceived when it comes to forming a unified Arctic law. The Canada vs. USA (Beaufort Sea) and the Canada vs. Denmark/Greenland (Lincoln Sea) disputes are some of the most mentionable ones here. There is much confusion among stakeholders as to which of the national shipping laws will be applied here (Chapin et al, 2006, p. 200). The evolving governance structure includes more stakeholders in the form of new observer nations which are China, India, Italy, Singapore and Japan. Under the Canadian chairmanship, the stability of rules is assessed. In addition to the search and rescue agreements, an oil spill agreement was also formed. The Oil spill cooperation agreement is one where international cooperation is expected with respect to marine oil pollution preparedness. A need for a strengthened governance regime is expected especially considering the growing number of stakeholders who were not included before (Juda, and Hennessey, 2001, p.43-50).